Geofoam has been used to control loading on rigid buried pipes by development of an induced
trench condition (Vaslestad 1991). It is also feasible to consider reducing stresses on large
flexible culverts by placement of geofoam.
Valslestad, J., (1991). "Load Reduction on Buried Rigid Pipes." 10th European
Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Vol. 2, Florence, May 1991.